l'histoire du bouddhisme

Buddhism is one of the largest religions in the world. In this, ethics is based on the fact that actions of the body, speech and mind have consequences for others and for oneself. Buddhism presents a set of meditative practices, religious rituals, ethical practices and various theories. In this article, we will present the history of Buddhism.

The Origins of Buddhism

Buddhism was born in North India at the end of the 6th century, more precisely in the middle Ganges valley. Its foundation is attributed to a prince from a royal family of Nepal called Siddhârta Gautama. He is known to all by the name Buddha.

After discovering the miseries of the human condition, he decided to leave everything to devote himself to an ascetic life. He taught men the way to escape suffering and reach Nirvana, namely paradise. Following his multiple meditations, he has a revelation or an illumination. For forty-five years the Buddha continued his ministry, constantly traveling and preaching in the principal cities east of the Ganges.

The Buddha organized his community of wandering monks called the Sangha. After his death around 480 BC, Buddhist communities were formed and monasteries were created. In India, the majority of places associated with the Buddha are pilgrimage centers for Buddhists.

Over time, Buddhism presents itself in different forms. Closest to the original doctrine is the small vehicle. This form is gradually established from Ceylon via Burma and Indonesia to Laos. According to this little vehicle, there is no god. After its disappearance, another path led Buddhism through Mongolia to China and Vietnam. The form it takes in these countries is the large vehicle. According to the latter, there will be other Buddhas. Finally, the third form of Buddhism is the diamond vehicle whose Head is the Dalai Lama.

The life and youth of the Buddha

The Buddha is a historical figure. He was able to acquire the devotion of a large population around the world. Thanks to his multiple miracles, Prince Siddhartha, which means he who accomplishes his goals, began his works around 563 BCE. His father belonged to the warrior class. He belonged to a noble family.

Its patriarch was the head of the Çakya clan, hence the name Sakyamuni translated and nicknamed as the loner of the Çakya family. Their family name is Gautama, because they were of the Gotamid race. Siddhartha was raised as a warrior, but not as a philosopher or a great thought. His father was careful not to let him leave their domain. Indeed, Brahmins would have predicted that he would flee once he became aware of old age, illness, death and the existence of arhats.

Buddha lived during his youth in nobility and palace lust. He had a wife and a child. Then, in the royal garden, he met an old man, then a sick man and finally a yogi. This took away all satisfaction and made him aware of the suffering in the world. Because of this, Buddha began to reflect on human conditions. He suffered more and more from noticing and observing the misfortunes of those around him. The suffering and pain of the world had convinced him to dedicate and even sacrifice his life for others. At that time, he was only 29 years old.

The beginning of the awakening and teaching of Buddha

After this spiritual awakening to the harsh reality of the world, Buddha abandoned his wife and son and began to learn and meditate. For six years, under the guidance of two yoga masters, he engaged in the toughest exercises and became a monk. But this ascetic life did not satisfy him and the deprivations almost killed him. He ends up passing out. It is said that it was a woman who saved him from death by giving him milk and honey. His disciples, five in number, turned away from supporting him and following him because of perjury. The monks believe that contact with a woman and these foods had made him impure. He had become untouchable.

Buddha continued to teach from village to village. Often he tells the villagers the results of his meditations. The crowd that follows him is more and more numerous to be interested in his advice. Everyone he contacted was amazed and impressed by his way of expressing himself, by his face and by his gestural ways of communicating. He communicates with others in a very joyful way with a childish smile.

His expression illuminated his disciples. The latter firmly believed that his image reflected the serenity and humility of the soul. While these gestures reflected his modesty and honesty. None of Buddha's movements and expressions express constraint, violence, desire and instability. All his behaviors were perfectly simple, disinterested and understanding.

Buddha was famous for his attitude regarding total detachment from the perversion of the world and human beings. People followed him, because he did not impose any pressure or penance on anyone. All he did was walk the path of wisdom and good behavior. For many years, Buddha inflicted painful relevance on himself without reaching the absolute truth. One day, he decided to sit on top of a fig tree to meditate. He made a promise to stay under the tree until he found spiritual elimination.

He declares that even if his body withers, he would not move above the tree until he has penetrated the supreme knowledge. This shows Buddha's perseverance in achieving his ultimate goal which is awakening and enlightenment. He then plunged into deep meditation. This search for truth lasted seven weeks. He peacefully contemplated the workings of his mind and discovered its characteristics and laws. Thus knowing the causes of discomfort and suffering, he freed himself from them and achieved Awakening at the last watch of the night. The liberating illumination opened his minds.

The dogmas of Buddhism

history of the Buddhists

The dogmas of Buddhism called Theravada are largely borrowed from Brahmanical philosophy. They affirm the eternity of elementary matter which combines and recombines indefinitely following a fatal law. These are characters of what is irrefutable. These dogmas are the belief in rebirth, the belief in Nirvana, the belief that the world is illusion, the belief that suffering arises from envy and the belief that Siddhartha historically existed. He is the greatest man who ever lived, because he meditated for a long time. This man is nicknamed Buddha, because he achieved enlightenment.

The elements that make up the dogmas of Buddhism are the precepts, the noble eightfold path, the four noble truths and the transcendent virtues. Firstly, with regard to the precepts of Buddha, they teach all Buddhists not to kill living beings, not to steal, not to commit adultery or engage in improper sexual conduct, to don't lie and don't get drunk. Then, regarding the four noble truths, they are Dukkha, Samudaya, Nirodha and Marga. The first truth alludes to the fact that all existence in itself is unsatisfactory. Everyone without exception experiences suffering in life.

Even the person with the least problems experiences suffering. Happiness is therefore never complete since suffering is constantly present. In the second truth, we see that all suffering comes from attachment, ignorance and desire. All the things we desire often lead to dissatisfaction and thus unhappiness. Afterwards, in the third truth, it is announced that suffering can be eliminated. In this way, one can overcome pain by completely eliminating the desire and attachment inherent in all existence.

To do this, we should carry out introspection work through meditation to find the origin of suffering. Finally, for the fourth noble truth, it is the noble eightfold path represented by right understanding, right speech, right action, right lifestyle, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. Furthermore, in the transcendent virtues, one must practice almsgiving, perfect morality, patience, kindness and charity.

Furthermore, in the dogmas of Buddhism there is the universal benevolence developed through the practice of meditation, the compassion which is born from the encounter of the benevolence and the suffering of others and the sympathetic joy which consists of rejoice in the happiness of others. We must not forget equanimity or tranquility, which goes beyond compassion and sympathetic joy, is a state of peace in the face of any circumstance, happy, sad or indifferent.

Regarding Nirvana

According to the teachings of Buddha, those who have followed these dogmas to the letter have the possibility of achieving perfection, Nirvana and happiness. He can thus become a bodhisattva. The Buddha explains Nirvana as a state devoid of desire and suffering. It leads on the path to final deliverance. Nirvana should not be confused with any Christian paradise. It is not a place where one goes nor a place where one continues to exist after death, but a mental state. It’s peace of mind, happiness.

We can also see Nirvana as an absolute awareness of the totality of phenomena, which generates a state of ultimate and endless plenitude. Regardless, this state ends the cycle of reincarnations in Buddhism. When a Buddha dies, he remains in a state of nirvana and is no longer reborn, because he has freed himself from the infinite cycle of births and rebirths. Before dying, Buddha said that it is possible for everyone to achieve Nirvana. Just observe the elements that can cause suffering and avoid them.

The distribution of Buddhist doctrine

After long teachings from village to village, Buddha returned to Bernes to join the monks he had left months before. He spoke to them about the eight truths including the middle path, the noble eightfold path and the four holy truths. After some demonstrations and explanations, many monks and rich merchants followed Buddha's teaching and trained his disciples. The latter walked with their master in all the towns and villages to comfort the poor and the unfortunate. He teaches the people they meet to know how to live righteously. They advised and guided these people in the right path and revealed to them the truth.

Towards the end of the 6th century BC, Buddhist doctrine spread across India. An exceptional being had found the pillar of happiness and had gone beyond the stages of human suffering. He knew how to find light in the darkness and darkness of the world. He is called Buddha which means the enlightened one.

Currently, a large part of Eastern countries integrate Buddhist as a movement of thought, but not a religion. No learning or text in Buddhism describes Buddha as a God. He is a mortal who found the illumination of thought and who shared these truths and awakenings with his neighbor. Buddhism teaches the right way of life in everyday life and the best way to meditate on oneself and the world. Several Buddhist precepts guide disciples and followers in their daily lives. These precepts prohibit all evil acts such as killing, stealing, lying, committing impure acts, and drinking intoxicating beverages.

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