tout savoir sur les pyramides d'egypte

We can define the pyramids of Egypt as marvels of human genius. They form a historically and geographically coherent whole. They were built by a very ancient civilization, which had a way of life, a religion and a vision of the future different from what we have today. If we refer to these different pyramids, we can understand that this civilization experienced some improvements in construction techniques: which explains the different shapes.

Pyramid of Egypt

The historical context

It was during the old empire between the 3rd and 6th dynasties that we had the “pyramid construction” projects. This ancient era spanned from 3150 to -2181. The Egyptians thought of “new” royal tombs when they built them. Indeed, before, we had mastabas which were buried or semi-buried rectangular complexes. Pharaoh Djoser then receives the new “mastaba” which is a stepped pyramid.

The Egyptians subsequently improved their construction techniques. They wanted to move from the step pyramid to a smooth-sided pyramid, but it took several attempts and several centuries to get there. It was at the beginning of the 4th Dynasty that we had the first pyramid and very shortly after, the giant pyramids. Towards the end of the old empire, the construction of these large buildings ended before resuming between the 12th and 13th dynasties and between the 17th and 18th dynasties.

The different types of pyramids

The step pyramids are the first in this collection and it is that of Pharaoh Djoser which is the very first. The pyramid of Djoser is not so impressive, because it is a superposition of two mastabas followed by a stacking in the form of a successive mound. Among the step pyramids, we can also cite that of Sekhmekhet in Saqqara and that of Khaba in Zaouiet el-Aryan.

Medium-sized pyramids, that is to say those between 12 and 20 meters high, are classified as provincial pyramids. What characterizes them above all is their geographical location: they are all outside the capital. This is the case of the pyramid of Athribis in Athribis, the pyramid of Edfu in Edfu and the pyramid of Al-Koula in Hierakonpolis. We also have attempts at smooth-sided pyramids which seem to be unfinished, such as the step pyramid of Snefrou at Meidoum and the rhomboidal pyramid of Snefrou at Dahshur.

different pyramid

There was a period when the pharaohs wanted giant pyramids at all costs, but there were very few of them. Those which are still in good condition are those of Khufu and Khafre. We subsequently had the golden age of the pyramids, periods during which the construction of these buildings followed a standard. This is where the pyramid of Mykerinos in Giza and the pyramid of Neferirkare in Abusir were born.

Discover the pyramids in Egypt

For your holidays in Egypt, it would be regrettable to miss these pyramids. It would still not be possible to visit all the pyramids of Egypt during your stay.


For this discovery of the pyramids of Egypt, you can pass by the Saqqara necropolis which is the oldest of all. Its surface area is so large that we cannot consider visiting the entire site on foot. To get around, you can opt for a taxi. Don't miss the famous pyramid of Djoser, it is the first pyramid of ancient Egypt and also the first of all humanity. The Pyramid of Djoser is a step pyramid and it was built by Imhotep. At the Saqqara necropolis, there are also other pyramids, some of which have been destroyed, temples, the Serapeum and a small museum.

Globe trotters who pass through Egypt do not miss the pyramids of Giza, quite simply because they are the best known. It is here that you will find the Sphinx of Giza and the 3 most famous pyramids of Egypt: that of Khufu, Chephren and Mykerinos. Unlike the Saqqara necropolis, that of Giza is not so huge and you can explore it very well on foot. Bring good walking shoes. As there are pyramids from the 4th Dynasty here, you should not expect extravagant decorations. It is their size that distinguishes these pyramids. If you have time to visit the necropolis of Giza, enter the pyramids, go around the Sphinx, go to the temples, especially that of Khafre.

discover the great pyramid of Cheops

Also think about making a Dahshur necropolis. Of course, it is not the most visited, but if you pass there, you will better understand the evolution of the Egyptian pyramids. Here, we have five pyramids, but there are two that are very special: the red pyramid and the rhomboidal pyramid. They result from a failed attempt to create a smooth-sided pyramid by the pharaoh Snefrou. Of these two pyramids, only the red pyramid can be visited. Here, we have a long corridor which leads to the three buried burial chambers.

What you need to know about the Great Pyramid of Cheops

If the Cheops Pyramid receives a large number of visitors each year, there is definitely a reason. In any case, with what is within this great building, it could still attract more visitors for years to come. Two years ago, the Franco-Egyptian ScanPyramid mission spoke of a cavity in the heart of the pyramid which is 40 meters long. It’s confirmed: it’s not a series of small rooms stacked on top of each other, but a corridor.

We can also ask questions about its length, because it is indeed 40 m long, which is approximately the same length as the Grande Galerie. Until now, these researchers have not succeeded in providing an explanation for its role. It is assumed that it leads to where Khufu's body is located.

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